The more than 6000 Jews in the region of Hanover arrived in the middle of society, even if the anti-Semitic trends always existed latently in all spheres. They were successful as scientists, as manufacturers, as architects, as poets and writers, as bankers, as inventors, as actors, as politicians, as well as craftsmen. They were respected and accepted by the people and in public, for example Cora Berliner 29. Nevertheless the National Socialists were able to segregate them from society with their methods of exclusion, violence and terror. From Hanover alone, 1935 children, women and men were murdered and thousands of them were expelled; in 1945 only 100 Jewish people lived in the city.
Already on 1 April, 1933 the NSDAP-party leaders called for the boycott of Jewish business. Even in Hanover the people followed this call and the “Fighting Association of Business Mid-Range Sector” put guards in front of the shops.
On the basis of the "Berufsbeamtengesetz" from 7 April, 1933 16 Jewish department employees were released. In May 1933, beater units destroyed the presentations of 50 Jewish shops in Hanover. In 1934, the attacks of anti-Semitic criminals on Jewish shops increased. Already in the year 1934 boycott-guards stood in front of Jewish shops and prevented customers going in. The gradual disappearance of Jewish citizens could not be hidden from the rest of society; It became visible because of the following processes, which also took place in Hanover. About 1000 edicts and proclamations were passed by the National Socialists against the Jews and forced them out of social life:
- 1935, racial laws of Nuerenberg, where the Jews were degraded to people of second class
- Many Jewish citizens emigrated from Hanover
- There were no customers for Jewish shops anymore
- The Covered Hall flaunted a huge shield in 1936 with the following mocking verse:
- Jew, you are recognized, also in Hanover-land,
That in Hanover just one Jew is tolerated,
That is the fault of the Jewish servant
- 60 to 70 percent of the Jewish companies that existed in 1933 were “aryanised” at the beginning of 1938, as National Socialists called their raid on Jewish property
- Jewish housemaids had to be discharged
- Jewish doctors were not allowed to practise anymore
- Jewish employees were not allowed to work together with non-Jewish employees
- Jewish pupils disappeared from the schools
- Jews had to seek special shelters
- Jewish citizens had to leave their apartments and houses from one day to another, caused by the “Aktion Lauterbach” in September 1941
- In the address books Jewish forced names Sara and Israel appeared
- Until September 1941 Jews had to wear the Yellow Star, which was clearly visible
Literature: 23, 31
In Yad Vashem, the memorial for the Holocaust and heroism in Jerusalem, Israel, all of the Jewish communities which were wiped out by the National Socialists are commemorated in the Valley of Communities, whose foundation stone was laid in October 1983. Additionally, the wiped out communities of Hanover, Pattensen, Wunstorf, Barsinghausen and Eldagsen are engraved in boulders piled up.
1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 45, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61
As early as the 15th century, the discrimination and persecution of Sinti and Roma set in as well. They were perceived as strangers and they were often regarded with hate and resentment, because of their bondless and nomadic way of life. Nevertheless some Sinti achieved a modest fortune, i.e. as actors, musicians or horse or antiquity merchants. The boxer Johann “Rukeli” Trollmann from Hanover achieved reputation as well. 25.
At first the National Socialist persecution of the people designated as “Gypsies” simply continued the discriminating "Landfahrerpolitik" ("land driver politics") of the Empire and the Weimar Republic in a more severe form. Just in 1938 a greater wave of imprisonment swept over the whole state of Germany, by which Sinti and Roma were delivered to assorted concentration camps. At the same time the National Socialits began to register them in a great way with the help of the racial purifcation investigation. Due to the “Festsetzungserlass” ("call for imprisonment") of 1939, many Sinti who exercised a travelling occupation lost their livelihood. After the deportation of most of the Jews from the Reich in 1941/42, the Sinti and Roma in the region of Hanover were also deported to Auschwitz in a large act in May 1943. 22, 32
Of the approx. 23,000 prisoners of the „Zigeunerfamilienlager“ ("Gypsy family camp") in Auschwitz-Birkenau, only a few survived.